Northern Maryland’s Baldwin Moguls

Through the last quarter of the 19th century, the Northern Maryland freight revenues increased. Inbound coal, both anthracite for home heating and bituminous coal used by the railroad and online businesses were a major part of the increase. Slate products from northern Hartford county and wood to and from the various mill were also major online freight products. Moving agricultural products, the reason the railroad was built always brought money to the balance sheet. To move all of this, the railroad relied heavily on its three Moguls. At times, they even were used in passenger service to cover for one of the two Americans. The addition of the ten-wheelers in the late 1880s caused a reshuffling of motive power with the Americans only handling the Westminster to Manchester passenger and freight service. One mogul worked the Manchester to Hanover turn, one handled the Manchester to Bel Air turn, and one handled the Manchester to Parkton turn. By 1914, the Manchester to Parkton turn had become a mixed train following the Hanover to Parkton morning passenger train. The mixed ran six days weekly except Sundays. The freight varied daily, but the combine and L.C.L boxcar were always part of the train.

In 1914, both second number one, a Baldwin 8-22D, and the rebuilt Cooke Mogul were used on the Parkton Branch mixed. Let’s take a look at a similar prototype and potential models for the Baldwin Mogul.

I have always liked the rebuilt Nevada County Narrow Gauge Mogul #5, featured on the dust jacket of Gerald M. Best’s Nevada County Narrow Gauge. I have always liked John Hugh Coker print and use it as the prototype of the Northern Maryland’s mixed train that served Beckleysville. The engine is currently preserved at the Nevada County Narrow Gauge Railroad museum, which you can visit online here. The museum has a brief history of the engine’s long and storied work life. As for models of this little engine, I am not as fortunate. I could only find that it was made in On3 by Iron Horse Models. Here is a photograph of the model on the website. I have never been able to find this model though or I would have considered building Beckleysville in O scale. Fortunately, Railmaster Exports has a generic Baldwin 8-20/22D kit which I purchased with some extra parts to create a similar version of the rebuilt “5”.

Before I go any further, an explanation of Baldwin Locomotive Companies unique classification system. I found an excellent explanation at the SOuthern Methodist University’s Degolyer Library. If you are interested in learning more, go to this website. Below is a section that I accessed to make it easy to understand.

Baldwin Class Numbers:The Baldwin Class number was a rather complicated classification system initiated in 1842 and used until some time around 1940. For example, The class number for the Nevada-California-Oregon Railway can be described in the following manner.

  • 10-24 D 35
  • 35 = Indicates the 35th locomotive in the class.
  • D = 3 pairs of driving wheels
  • 24 = Number representing size of cylinder
  • 10 = Indicates a total of 10 wheels

a. The initial number is the total number of wheels of all kinds under the locomotive. The second number indicates the cylinder diameter in inches, the cylinder diameter being obtained by dividing the classification number by 2 and adding 3 to the quotient. The above classification number of 24 indicates a cylinder diameter of (24 ÷ 2) + 3 = 15.

  • A fraction, 42/68 indicates a compound locomotive having two sizes of cylinders.

c. The letter designation indicates the number of pairs of coupled driving wheels.

  • “A” = special class of high speed geared locomotive with one pair of driving wheels. Also rack railroad locomotives.
  • “B” = one pair of driving wheels.
  • “C” = two pairs of coupled driving wheels.
  • “D” = three pairs of coupled driving wheels.
  • “E” = f our pairs of coupled driving wheels.
  • “F” = five pairs of coupled driving wheels.
  • Double letters = articulated locomotives having more than one set of coupled driving wheels.

Now if I use the Baldwin classification system correctly, the NCNG 5 has cylinder size of 13×16 inches. This makes it an 8-20D. It has smaller cylinders than my Railmaster Export models, but I can live with that difference of 2 inches.

Next post, I want to spend some time discussing the Northern Maryland’s lone non-Baldwin engine, a Cooke Mogul.

Northern Maryland’s Baldwin Moguls

Picture of a finished Railmaster Export 8-22D kit attached to my box.

Northern Maryland’s Baldwin Moguls @February 2021

By: H. Mathews

Barriers to Model Railroading: Believable Freelance Locomotive Rosters

A believable locomotive roster for a freelance model railroad is what helps make the model railroad believable. I have seen many modelers have a one of this and one of that roster. That would be acceptable for maybe one engine but not the entire roster. What makes a believable roster? How many different classes of steam engines or diesels. Which manufacturer(s) would the railroad buy their engines from. The other problem is availability of a suitable model in the scale you are modeling.

First question, what do you intend to model. Are you modeling a short line, a branch line of a larger railroad or a division of a main line? Are you modeling a fictional section of a railroad or is the whole thing a freelance model? What type of freight and passenger traffic will you be modeling? If you address these questions during the initial phases, purchasing locomotives will be a better experience than buying this one or that one.

Let’s use the Northern Maryland Railway as our freelance example. In its region, other narrow gauge railroads would be the East Broad Top, the Lancaster,Oxford, and Southern Railroad, the York Southern, and the Maryland Central. More distant historical comparators that I like are the Newport and Sherman’s Valley, Tuscarora Valley Railroad, Waynesburg and Washington, Eastern Tennessee and Western North Carolina, and the Ohio River and Western. I also decided to look at two standard gauge short lines, the Stewartstown Railroad and the Ma&Pa.

In determining my engine roster, I decided that the Northern Maryland would purchase steam engines new similar to the East Broad Top, Waynesburg and Washington, and Eastern Tennessee & Western North Carolina railroads. I also decided that the primary builder would be Baldwin Locomotive as they are close to the Northern Maryland. I did have one engine deviate from this plan. One mogul would be purchased from Cooke at a time when Baldwin was too busy to fill an order in the time the Northern Maryland required.

I started my locomotive roster from the beginning of the Northern Maryland in the early 1870s up to 1914. Engine retirements, replacements, rebuildings, and an occasional wreck were all included in the process to arrive at my 1914 engine roster. The NM purchased small power, 2-4-0, 4-4-0s, 2-6-0s, and finally 4-6-0s. Like the ET&WNC, the Northern Maryland decided that the dual purpose 4-6-0s suited their needs best. The only downside was that the 4-6-0s that Baldwin sold the ET&WNC were built in the early 20th century. The Northern Maryland would be purchasing their ten-wheelers much earlier, in the early mid 1880s. The ET&WNC ten-wheelers have always been a favorite of mine, however they are not made in Sn3 and they do not meet the imagineered Northern Maryland purchase history. The Denver and Rio Grande’s T-12s however did meet the framework of the story I am trying to tell and in the correct timeframe. Jerry Day made two excellent videos of the Cumbres and Toltec’s restored T-12 number 168. You can watch them here and here or search for them on YouTube. After watching Mr Day’s videos as well as several others, I was sold on the T12! Better yet, it is available in Sn3. P-B-L made them several years ago now and would require finding one used. Railmaster Exports, in New Zealand, still makes new T-12 kits.

Northern Maryland’s #1 was similar to the Denver and Rio Grande’s Montezuma. Nathan Holmes collection. Downloaded from

Barriers to Model Railroading: Believable Freelance Locomotive Rosters @February 2021 by H. Mathews